Racial discrimination has been a problematic issue in the US ever since the slave and colonial periods. Socially and legally rights and privileges were hardly given to black Americans, Native Americans, Latin Americans, and Asian Americans, but were predominantly awarded to White Americans. European Americans, Anglo Americans in particular, were granted special rights and privileges of citizenship, immigration, land acquisition, voting rights, education, as well as criminal procedure. However, some groups from Europe, for instance, Italian, Polish, and Irish people, suffered xenophobic exclusion and ethnic-based segregation in the American society, since they were hardly considered as fully whites (Miller and Garran 101). What is more, even though Americans in the Middle East are considered as whites in the US census, Arabs and Jews have faced an ongoing discrimination in the US. The South and East Asians have also faced racism in the US and are normally not counted as whites.
Major racial-structured institutions comprised Indian wars, slavery, stratification, Native American reservation, confinement camps, as well as residential school institutes for Native Americans. Formal racial discrimination in the US commenced in seventeenth century and stopped in 1960s. In this regard, formal racial discrimination was principally outlawed in 1960s, after which racial discrimination got considered as socially and legally offensive and morally repulsive (Reimers 36). The politics of racial discrimination remain a core observable fact in the US to date. Racial discrimination continues being mirrored in socioeconomic disparity, and has also scooped on more contemporary and indirect shape, which include emblematic racism. Racial discrimination has continued to transpire in various sectors, including education, labor, government, lending, and housing.
While significant gains were accomplished in the following decades after the ban of formal racism in 1960s through public employment and middle class advancement, the lack of education and poverty among blacks deepened in the milieu of de-industrialization. Institutional racism, discrimination, and prejudice continue to affect African Americans. In spite of the gains realized after the Baptist Church bombing, aggression against blacks has continued. For instance, black churches were set on fire in the south of US in the 1990s, as well as the recent Charleston church shootings in 2015, where about 9 blacks were shot dead. From 1980 to 1997, the Department of Agriculture in US discriminated against numerous black American farmers through denying them loans that were offered to white farmers under similar circumstances.
Most hatred crimes in the US target victims based on race and ethnicity. In addition, most of hate crimes reported in the recent years in the US are anti-black, anti-white, anti-Jewish, and anti-Hispanic. According to Justice Statistics Bureau, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites have had similar rates of aggressive hate crime victimization in the recent decades. Stereotypes attributed to minority groups such as Black Americans and Asian Americans, continue influencing social interactions. For example, Asian Americans are often perceived as submissive by other races. In addition, Asian Americans are viewed as foreigners, model minorities, and unfair competitors. Such stereotypes can really dehumanize Asian Americans, as well as catalyze violence and hostility.
To conclude, formal racism against minority groups has existed throughout the American history. Political, economic, and social rights have been confined by race since the founding of the US. Throughout the country’s history, race has been exploited by whites to legitimize and create certain political, economic, and social exclusions. As a direct result, there remains a wide wealth gap between the whites and black Americans. Racial coding has also been used to skillfully influence the political views of the American society.